Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the quality of life of Type 1 diabetes patients using insulin pumps and of those receiving multiple daily insulin injections

Lilian Tzivian (Coresponding Author), Jelizaveta Sokolovska, Anna E. Grike, Agate Kalcenaua, Abraham Seidmann, Arriel Benis, Martins Mednis, Ieva Danovska, Ugis Berzins, Arnolds Bogdanovs, Emil Syundyukov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: Insulin pump therapy represents an alternative to multiple daily injections and can improve glycemic control and quality of life (QoL) in Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients. We aimed to explore the differences and factors related to the T1DM-specific QoL of such patients in Latvia. Design and methods: A mixed-method cross-sectional study on 87 adult T1DM patients included 20 pump users and 67 users of injections who participated in the quantitative part of the study; 8 pump users and 13 injection users participated in the qualitative part. Patients were invited to participate using a dedicated digital platform. Their QoL and self-management habits were assessed using specially developed questionnaires adapted to Latvian conditions. Multiple logistic regression models were built to investigate the association between social and self-management factors and patients’ QoL. In addition, qualitative analysis of answers was performed. Results: Insulin pump users were younger, had higher incomes, and reported higher T1DM expenses than users of multiple daily injections. There were no differences in self-management between the groups; Total QoL differed at the 0.1 significance level. In fully adjusted multiple logistic regression models, the most important factor that increased Total QoL was lower T1DM-related expenses (odds ratio, OR 7.02 [95% confidence interval 1.29; 38.0]). Men and those with more years of living with T1DM had better QoL (OR 9.62 [2.20; 42.1] and OR 1.16 [1.05; 1.29], respectively), but the method of administration was not significantly associated with QoL (OR 7.38 [0.87; 62.9]). Qualitative data supported the results of quantitative analysis. Conclusions: QoL was the main reason to use an insulin pump, while the expense was the main reason to avoid the use of it or to stop using it. Reimbursement policies thus should be considered to enable patients to choose the more convenient method for themselves.

Original languageEnglish
Article number120
JournalHealth and Quality of Life Outcomes
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Comparative effectiveness research
  • Diabetes-related expenses
  • Health economics
  • Insulin pump
  • Multiple daily insulin injections
  • Quality of life
  • Real World Data digital tool
  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus

Field of Science*

  • 3.3 Health sciences
  • 3.2 Clinical medicine

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


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