Remodeling Factors, Transcription Factors and Angiogenetic Factors in Cholesteatoma in Ontogenetic Aspect

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The main goal of our study was to describe the transcription factor (NF-κβ), angiogenetic factor (VEGF), and remodeling markers (MMP-9 and TIMP-4) of the cholesteatoma tissue compared to control skin tissue. There are still uncertainties how transcription, angiogenetic and remodeling factors affect the cholesteatoma course.
Materials and Methods:
Eight cholesteatoma tissue specimens were retrieved from children, seven – from adults, seven skin controls – from cadavers. Obtained material immunohistochemically were stained for NF-κβ, MMP-9, TIMP-4, VEGF.
Non-parametric statistic methods were used.
A statistically significant higher numbers of NF-κβ and TIMP-4 immunoreactive cells in the cholesteatoma compared to control group. A very strong positive correlation between MMP-9 and TIMP-4 was seen in the patient
group. A strong positive correlation - between MMP-9 in matrix and MMP-9, VEGF in perimatrix, between TIMP-4 in matrix and TIMP-4 in perimatrix, NF-κβ in the matrix and VEGF; between TIMP-4 in perimatrix and NF-κβ in the matrix.
Correlation between MMP-9 and TIMP-4 suggests that TIMP-4 in cholesteatoma tissue intercorrelates to MMP9. TIMP-4 likely regulates the development of cholesteatoma. Disbalance between MMPs and TIMPs affects NFκβ and causes uncontrolled cell proliferation and immune response in this tumor. There is a lack of VEGF strong expression in cholesteatoma perimatrix.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)71-81
Number of pages11
JournalIranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


  • Cholesteatoma
  • Transcription factor
  • Metalloproteases
  • Vascular endothelial growth factor

Field of Science*

  • 3.1 Basic medicine
  • 3.2 Clinical medicine

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


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