Results of the COVID-19 mental health international for the general population (COMET-G) study

Konstantinos N. Fountoulakis, Grigorios Karakatsoulis, Seri Abraham, Kristina Adorjan, Helal Uddin Ahmed, Renato D. Alarcón, Kiyomi Arai, Sani Salihu Auwal, Michael Berk, Sarah Bjedov, Julio Bobes, Teresa Bobes-Bascaran, Julie Bourgin-Duchesnay, Cristina Ana Bredicean, Laurynas Bukelskis, Akaki Burkadze, Indira Indiana Cabrera Abud, Ruby Castilla-Puentes, Marcelo Cetkovich, Hector Colon-RiveraRicardo Corral, Carla Cortez-Vergara, Piirika Crepin, Domenico De Berardis, Sergio Zamora Delgado, David De Lucena, Avinash De Sousa, Ramona Di Stefano, Seetal Dodd, Livia Priyanka Elek, Anna Elissa, Berta Erdelyi-Hamza, Gamze Erzin, Martin J. Etchevers, Peter Falkai, Adriana Farcas, Ilya Fedotov, Viktoriia Filatova, Nikolaos K. Fountoulakis, Iryna Frankova, Francesco Franza, Pedro Frias, Tatiana Galako, Cristian J. Garay, Leticia Garcia-Álvarez, Maria Paz García-Portilla, Xenia Gonda, Tomasz M. Gondek, Daniela Morera González, Hilary Gould, Paolo Grandinetti, Arturo Grau, Violeta Groudeva, Michal Hagin, Takayuki Harada, Tasdik M. Hasan, Nurul Azreen Hashim, Jan Hilbig, Sahadat Hossain, Rossitza Iakimova, Mona Ibrahim, Felicia Iftene, Yulia Ignatenko, Matias Irarrazaval, Zaliha Ismail, Jamila Ismayilova, Asaf Jakobs, Miro Jakovljević, Nenad Jakšić, Afzal Javed, Helin Yilmaz Kafali, Sagar Karia, Olga Kazakova, Doaa Khalifa, Olena Khaustova, Steve Koh, Svetlana Kopishinskaia, Korneliia Kosenko, Sotirios A. Koupidis, Illes Kovacs, Barbara Kulig, Alisha Lalljee, Justine Liewig, Abdul Majid, Evgeniia Malashonkova, Khamelia Malik, Najma Iqbal Malik, Gulay Mammadzada, Bilvesh Mandalia, Donatella Marazziti, Darko Marčinko, Stephanie Martinez, Eimantas Matiekus, Gabriela Mejia, Roha Saeed Memon, Xarah Elenne Meza Martínez, Dalia Mickevičiūtė, Roumen Milev, Muftau Mohammed, Alejandro Molina-López, Petr Morozov, Nuru Suleiman Muhammad, Filip Mustač, Mika S. Naor, Amira Nassieb, Alvydas Navickas, Tarek Okasha, Milena Pandova, Anca Livia Panfil, Liliya Panteleeva, Ion Papava, Mikaella E. Patsali, Alexey Pavlichenko, Bojana Pejuskovic, Mariana Pinto Da Costa, Mikhail Popkov, Dina Popovic, Nor Jannah Nasution Raduan, Francisca Vargas Ramírez, Elmars Rancans, Salmi Razali, Federico Rebok, Anna Rewekant, Elena Ninoska Reyes Flores, María Teresa Rivera-Encinas, Pilar Saiz, Manuel Sánchez de Carmona, David Saucedo Martínez, Jo Anne Saw, Görkem Saygili, Patricia Schneidereit, Bhumika Shah, Tomohiro Shirasaka, Ketevan Silagadze, Satti Sitanggang, Oleg Skugarevsky, Anna Spikina, Sridevi Sira Mahalingappa, Maria Stoyanova, Anna Szczegielniak, Simona Claudia Tamasan, Giuseppe Tavormina, Maurilio Giuseppe Maria Tavormina, Pavlos N. Theodorakis, Mauricio Tohen, Eva Maria Tsapakis, Dina Tukhvatullina, Irfan Ullah, Ratnaraj Vaidya, Johann M. Vega-Dienstmaier, Jelena Vrublevska, Olivera Vukovic, Olga Vysotska, Natalia Widiasih, Anna Yashikhina, Panagiotis E. Prezerakos, Daria Smirnova

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: There are few published empirical data on the effects of COVID‐19 on mental health, and until now, there is no large international study. Material and methods: During the COVID-19 pandemic, an online questionnaire gathered data from 55,589 participants from 40 countries (64.85% females aged 35.80 ± 13.61; 34.05% males aged 34.90±13.29 and 1.10% other aged 31.64±13.15). Distress and probable depression were identified with the use of a previously developed cut-off and algorithm respectively. Statistical analysis: Descriptive statistics were calculated. Chi-square tests, multiple forward stepwise linear regression analyses and Factorial Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tested relations among variables. Results: Probable depression was detected in 17.80% and distress in 16.71%. A significant percentage reported a deterioration in mental state, family dynamics and everyday lifestyle. Persons with a history of mental disorders had higher rates of current depression (31.82% vs. 13.07%). At least half of participants were accepting (at least to a moderate degree) a non-bizarre conspiracy. The highest Relative Risk (RR) to develop depression was associated with history of Bipolar disorder and self-harm/attempts (RR = 5.88). Suicidality was not increased in persons without a history of any mental disorder. Based on these results a model was developed. Conclusions: The final model revealed multiple vulnerabilities and an interplay leading from simple anxiety to probable depression and suicidality through distress. This could be of practical utility since many of these factors are modifiable. Future research and interventions should specifically focus on them.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)21-40
Number of pages20
JournalEuropean Neuropsychopharmacology
Volume54
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022

Keywords*

  • Anxiety
  • Conspiracy theories
  • COVID-19
  • Depression
  • Mental disorders
  • Mental health
  • Psychiatry
  • Suicidality

Field of Science*

  • 3.2 Clinical medicine
  • 3.3 Health sciences

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database

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