RETARDED GROWTH OF EMBRYO1, a new basic helix-loop-helix protein, expresses in endosperm to control embryo growth

Youichi Kondou, Miki Nakazawa, Mika Kawashima, Takanari Ichikawa, Takeshi Yoshizumi, Kumiko Suzuki, Akie Ishikawa, Tomoko Koshi, Ryo Matsui, Shu Muto, Minami Matsui

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124 Citations (Scopus)
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We have isolated two dominant mutants from screening approximately 50,000 RIKEN activation-tagging lines that have short inflorescence internodes. The activation T-DNAs were inserted near a putative basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene and expression of this gene was increased in the mutant lines. Overexpression of this bHLH gene produced the original mutant phenotype, indicating it was responsible for the mutants. Specific expression was observed during seed development. The loss-of-function mutation of the RETARDED GROWTH OF EMBRYO1 (RGE1) gene caused small and shriveled seeds. The embryo of the loss-of-function mutant showed retarded growth after the heart stage although abnormal morphogenesis and pattern formation of the embryo and endosperm was not observed. We named this bHLH gene RGE1. RGE1 expression was determined in endosperm cells using the β-glucuronidase reporter gene and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Microarray and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed specific down-regulation of putative GDSL motif lipase genes in the rge1-1 mutant, indicating possible involvement of these genes in seed morphology. These data suggest that RGE1 expression in the endosperm at the heart stage of embryo development plays an important role in controlling embryo growth.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1924-1935
Number of pages12
JournalPlant Physiology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2008
Externally publishedYes

Field of Science*

  • 1.6 Biological sciences

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


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