Scaffold-free, label-free and nozzle-free biofabrication technology using magnetic levitational assembly

Vladislav A. Parfenov, Elizaveta V. Koudan, Elena A. Bulanova, Pavel A. Karalkin, Frederico Das Pereira, Nikita E. Norkin, Alisa D. Knyazeva, Anna A. Gryadunova, Oleg F. Petrov, Mikhail M. Vasiliev, Maxim I. Myasnikov, Valery P. Chernikov, Vladimir A. Kasyanov, Artem Yu Marchenkov, Kenn Brakke, Yusef D. Khesuani, Utkan Demirci, Vladimir A. Mironov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

58 Citations (Scopus)


Tissue spheroids have been proposed as building blocks in 3D biofabrication. Conventional magnetic force-driven 2D patterning of tissue spheroids requires prior cell labeling by magnetic nanoparticles, meanwhile a label-free approach for 3D magnetic levitational assembly has been introduced. Here we present first time report on rapid assembly of 3D tissue construct using scaffold-free, nozzle-free and label-free magnetic levitation of tissue spheroids. Chondrospheres of standard size, shape and capable to fusion have been biofabricated from primary sheep chondrocytes using non-adhesive technology. Label-free magnetic levitation was performed using a prototype device equipped with permanent magnets in presence of gadolinium (Gd3+) in culture media, which enables magnetic levitation. Mathematical modeling and computer simulations were used for prediction of magnetic field and kinetics of tissue spheroids assembly into 3D tissue constructs. First, we used polystyrene beads to simulate the assembly of tissue spheroids and to determine the optimal settings for magnetic levitation in presence of Gd3+. Second, we proved the ability of chondrospheres to assemble rapidly into 3D tissue construct in the permanent magnetic field in the presence of Gd3+. Thus, scaffold- and label-free magnetic levitation of tissue spheroids is a promising approach for rapid 3D biofabrication and attractive alternative to label-based magnetic force-driven tissue engineering.

Original languageEnglish
Article number034104
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 18 Jun 2018


  • biofabrication
  • chondrospheres
  • gadolinium (Gd)
  • label-free
  • magnetic levitation (MagLev)
  • scaffold-free
  • tissue spheroids

Field of Science*

  • 2.5 Materials engineering
  • 2.6 Medical engineering

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


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