Signalling molecules in jaw bones and gingival tissues of patients with Class II and Class III dentofacial deformities

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OBJECTIVES: To detect signalling molecule specificities in jaw bone growth zones in skeletal class II and class III patients and compare them to those of a control group.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty skeletal Class II and 20 skeletal Class III patients who underwent orthognathic surgery treatment were in the study group and five skeletal Class I patients who had impacted third molars extracted were in the control group. During the orthognathic surgery, tissue samples were taken from the tuber maxillae, ramus mandibulae anterior and posterior part together with mucosa from the gingival transitory fold in the second molar region of the lower jaw. The samples were stained to detect TGF-β, BMP2/4, FGFR1, VEGF, OC, OP and MMP2 expression. The distributions of these factors were assessed semiquantitatively.

RESULTS: We observed significant expression of TGF-β, BMP2/4, OC and OP in the bone tissue of the study group. FGFR1 expression was more pronounced only in mucosa. VEGF and MMP2 were found only in some tissue samples. More apoptotic cells were observed in the bone tissue and soft tissue of the control patients than in those of the skeletal Class II and Class III patients, in which apoptotic cell frequencies were relatively equal.

CONCLUSION: From bone tissue in tuber maxillae region the greater TGF-β and BMP2/4 expression is seen in Class III and control groups, comparing to Class II. In ramus mandibulae anterior part the expression of significant factors in bone tissue growth (TGF-β un BMP2/4) is higher in the control group and Class II patients, while in ramus mandibulae posterior part higher expression of TGF-β and BMP2/4 is in Class III patients, comparing to Class II, which indicates to a preserved growth potential in these jaw bone regions. More active bone extracellular matrix protein (osteocalcin and osteopontin) expression in tuber maxillae region both in class II and class III patient groups and different expression in ramus mandibulae anterior part, prove to the bone mineralization and metabolism activity changes, which, perhaps, characterize just these dentofacial deformations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)71-77
Number of pages7
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • orthognathic surgery
  • bone
  • signalling molecules
  • immunohistochemistry

Field of Science*

  • 3.2 Clinical medicine

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


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