The effect of different degrees of lockdown and self-identified gender on anxiety, depression and suicidality during the COVID-19 pandemic: Data from the international COMET-G study

Konstantinos N Fountoulakis, Grigorios N Karakatsoulis (Coresponding Author), Seri Abraham, Elmars Rancans, Jeļena Vrubļevska, COMET-G collaboration

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)
2 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic various degrees of lockdown were applied by countries around the world. It is considered that such measures have an adverse effect on mental health but the relationship of measure intensity with the mental health effect has not been thoroughly studied. Here we report data from the larger COMET-G study pertaining to this question. Material and Methods: During the COVID-19 pandemic, data were gathered with an online questionnaire from 55,589 participants from 40 countries (64.85% females aged 35.80 ± 13.61; 34.05% males aged 34.90±13.29 and 1.10% other aged 31.64±13.15). Anxiety was measured with the STAI, depression with the CES-D and suicidality with the RASS. Distress and probable depression were identified with the use of a previously developed cut-off and algorithm respectively. Statistical Analysis: It included the calculation of Relative Risk (RR), Factorial ANOVA and Multiple backwards stepwise linear regression analysis Results: Approximately two-thirds were currently living under significant restrictions due to lockdown. For both males and females the risk to develop clinical depression correlated significantly with each and every level of increasing lockdown degree (RR 1.72 and 1.90 respectively). The combined lockdown and psychiatric history increased RR to 6.88 The overall relationship of lockdown with severity of depression, though significant was small. Conclusions: The current study is the first which reports an almost linear relationship between lockdown degree and effect in mental health.

Original languageEnglish
Article number114702
JournalPsychiatry Research
Volume315
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022

Keywords*

  • COVID-19
  • Depression
  • Mental health, lockdown, anxiety, mental health history
  • Suicidality

Field of Science*

  • 3.2 Clinical medicine
  • 3.3 Health sciences

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'The effect of different degrees of lockdown and self-identified gender on anxiety, depression and suicidality during the COVID-19 pandemic: Data from the international COMET-G study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this