The epidemiological and clinical findings from the Latvian registry of primary congenital glaucoma and evaluation of prognostic factors

Eva Elksne, Kristine Baumane, Arturs Ozolins, Sandra Valeina

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)
13 Downloads (Pure)


Background and objectives: primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) is a rare, potentially blinding disease that affects children worldwide. The aim of the study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics, outcomes for newly diagnosed patients with PCG, as well as evaluate the prognostic factors that are related to the outcomes. Materials and Methods: a retrospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary referral centre among patients diagnosed with PCG. Evaluation of the clinical data was performed preoperatively at three, six, and 12 months after the surgery and at the last follow-up. Results: during the 15 years of follow-ups, 24 eyes of 18 patients were diagnosed with PCG. Unilateral and bilateral PCG constituted 50% of cases each. A slight male predominance was observed (55.6% vs. 44.4%), with a relative risk of 1.3. The incidence of PCG was 1:19,033 live births. The mean age of the patients at the time of diagnosis was 10.1 ± 10.0 months, with a diagnostic delay of 2.0 ± 1.9 months. Furthermore, 75% of patients indicated an enlargement of an eyeball, followed by excessive tearing (58.3%) and corneal opacity (41.7%). After 85.9 ± 51.2 months, the mean intraocular pressure (IOP) value was 14.6 ± 4.9 mmHg. Surgical treatment provided sufficient IOP control in 75% of PCG cases at the last follow-up visit. The only prognostic factor that was related to the outcome of IOP control that was statistically significant was axial length at the time of diagnosis. Conclusions: the incidence of PCG in Latvia was 5.3 patients per 100,000 live births. PCG was more common among males than females with a relative risk of 1.3. The enlargement of an eyeball was the leading clinical sign.

Original languageEnglish
Article number44
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalMedicina (Lithuania)
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 7 Jan 2021


  • Clinical findings
  • Incidence
  • Primary congenital glaucoma
  • Primary paediatric glaucoma
  • Surgical treatment

Field of Science*

  • 3.2 Clinical medicine
  • 3.3 Health sciences

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


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