The global response: How cities and provinces around the globe tackled Covid-19 outbreaks in 2021

Nityanand Jain, I-Chun Hung, Hitomi Kimura, Yi Lin Goh, William Jau, Khoa Le Anh Huynh, Deepkanwar Singh Panag, Ranjit Tiwari, Sakshi Prasad, Emery Manirambona, Tamilarasy Vasanthakumaran, Tan Weiling Amanda, Ho-Wei Lin, Nikhil Vig, Nguyen Thanh An, Emmanuel Uwiringiyimana, Darja Popkova, Ting-Han Lin, Minh Anh Nguyen, Shivani JainTungki Pratama Umar, Mohamed Hoosen Suleman, Elnur Efendi, Chuan-Ying Kuo, Sikander Pal Singh Bansal, Sofja Kauškale, Hui-Hui Peng, Mohit Bains, Marija Rozevska, Thang Huu Tran, Meng-Shan Tsai, Pahulpreet, Suvinai Jiraboonsri, Ruo-Zhu Tai, Zeeshan Ali Khan, Dang Thanh Huy, Supitsara Kositbovornchai, Ching-Wen Chiu, Thi Hien Hau Nguyen, Hsueh-Yen Chen, Thanawat Khongyot, Kai-Yang Chen, Dinh Thi Kim Quyen, Jennifer Lam, Kadek Agus Surya Dila, Ngan Thanh Cu, My Tam Huynh Thi, Le Anh Dung, Kim Oanh Nguyen Thi, Hoai An Nguyen Thi, My Duc Thao Trieu, Yen Cao Thi, Thien Trang Pham, Koya Ariyoshi, Chris Smith, Nguyen Tien Huy (Coresponding Author)

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


Summary Background Tackling the spread of COVID-19 remains a crucial part of ending the pandemic. Its highly contagious nature and constant evolution coupled with a relative lack of immunity make the virus difficult to control. For this, various strategies have been proposed and adopted including limiting contact, social isolation, vaccination, contact tracing, etc. However, given the heterogeneity in the enforcement of these strategies and constant fluctuations in the strictness levels of these strategies, it becomes challenging to assess the true impact of these strategies in controlling the spread of COVID-19. Methods In the present study, we evaluated various transmission control measures that were imposed in 10 global urban cities and provinces in 2021– Bangkok, Gauteng, Ho Chi Minh City, Jakarta, London, Manila City, New Delhi, New York City, Singapore, and Tokyo. Findings Based on our analysis, we herein propose the population-level Swiss cheese model for the failures and pitfalls in various strategies that each of these cities and provinces had. Furthermore, whilst all the evaluated cities and provinces took a different personalized approach to managing the pandemic, what remained common was dynamic enforcement and monitoring of breaches of each barrier of protection. The measures taken to reinforce the barriers were adjusted continuously based on the evolving epidemiological situation. Interpretation How an individual city or province handled the pandemic profoundly affected and determined how the entire country handled the pandemic since the chain of transmission needs to be broken at the very grassroot level to achieve nationwide control. Funding The present study did not receive any external funding.
Original languageEnglish
Article number100031
Pages (from-to)1-15
Number of pages15
JournalThe Lancet regional health. Southeast Asia
Issue numberSeptember 2022
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2022

Field of Science*

  • 3.3 Health sciences

Publication Type*

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database


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