Therapeutic Vaccines Against Human Papilloma Viruses: Achievements and Prospects

M. S. Vonsky, A. L. Runov, I. V. Gordeychuk, M. G. Isaguliants

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Human papillomaviruses of high carcinogenic risk (HR HPVs) are major etiological agents of malignant diseases of the cervix, vulva, penis, anal canal, larynx, head, and neck. Prophylactic vaccination against HPV, which mainly covers girls and women under 25, does not prevent vertical and horizontal HPV transmission in infants and children and does not have a therapeutic effect. As a result, a significant proportion of the population is not protected from the HPV infection and development of HPV-associated neoplastic transformation and cancer, which indicates the need for development and intro- duction of therapeutic HPV vaccines. Unlike prophylactic vaccines aimed at the formation of virus-neutralizing antibodies, therapeutic vaccines elicit cellular immune response leading to the elimination of infected and malignant cells expressing viral proteins. The ideal targets for vaccine immunotherapy are highly conserved HR HPV oncoproteins E6 and E7 expressed in precancerous and tumor tissues. Here, we describe expression of these proteins during different stages of HPV infection, their antigenic and immunogenic properties, and T-cell epitopes, the response to which correlates with natural regression of HPV-induced neoplastic changes. The review describes patterns of E6 and E7 oncoproteins presentation to the immune system as components of candidate vaccines along with the results of the most promising preclinical trials and animal models used in these trials. Special attention is paid to vaccine candidates which have shown efficacy in clinical trials in patients with HPV-associated neoplastic changes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)800-816
Number of pages17
JournalBiochemistry (Moscow)
Volume84
Issue number7
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2019

Keywords

  • E6 and E7 oncoproteins
  • genetic vaccines
  • human papillomavirus
  • immune response
  • neoplasia
  • squamous cell carcinoma
  • therapeutic vaccination

Field of Science

  • 3.2 Clinical medicine
  • 3.1 Basic medicine

Publication Type

  • 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database

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