Aim: Identify urinary metabolites that would indicate specific changes in the gut microbiota and could be useful as biomarkers.
Methods: The study group consisted of 44 children with ASD. Urinary organic acids spectra and composition of gut microbiota were analysed.
Results: Any significant deviation in quantified metabolites compared to the reference values were not confirmed. The main variations were detected in concentration of p-cresol and 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropionic acid (HPHPA), but we cannot confirm the presence of HPHPA in urine as a biomarker for Clostridium sp. overgrowth in the gut. The acquired results indicate higher relative abundance of Firmicutes phylum alone may be attributed to increased concentration of p-cresol in urine. Decreased Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio was found in the group with the presence of HPHPA in urine.
Conclusions: Metabolites of human urine can be used as biomarkers for alterations of gut microbiota with caution, guided treatment should be administrated only based on gut microbiota analysis results or in combination with urinary organic acid results, but not solely based on organic acid biomarkers.
Field of Science*
- 3.1 Basic medicine
- 3.2 Clinical medicine
- 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database