X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP) is a rare primary immunodeficiency. Affected individuals usually present with the Epstein-Barr virus infection and have no apparent disease prior to presentation. The most common clinical manifestations are fulminant infectious mononucleosis, dysgammaglobulinaemia, and lymphoma (usually of B-cell origin). XLP is caused by mutations in the SH2D1A gene which encodes the intracellular adaptor molecule SAP (signalling lymphocyte activation molecule- (SLAM-) associated protein). SAP is predominantly expressed in T cells and NK cells and functions to regulate signal transduction pathways downstream of the SLAM family of surface receptors to control CD4+ T cell (and by extension B-cell), CD8+ T cell and NK cell function, and development of NKT cells. Thus, SAP mutations cause dysregulation of the immune system, with defects in both cellular and humoral immunity. Here we report two clinical cases of three patients who presented with different manifestations of XLP, namely, fulminant infectious mononucleosis, Burkitt lymphoma and hypogammaglobulinaemia.
Field of Science*
- 1.6 Biological sciences
- 3.2 Clinical medicine
- 1.1. Scientific article indexed in Web of Science and/or Scopus database